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Many APEC members are reforming education governance systems to meet the challenges they face in teaching the skills students require for the 21st Century. However, their reform efforts are moving in dramatically different directions depending on their degree of centralization. The desire to achieve more consistent outcomes for students and to ensure that all students are mastering core content areas is driving the West to seek greater standardization at the national policy level. At the same time, new forms of competitive governance mechanisms are being introduced in Eastern economies, including privatized schools, publicly run charter schools, alternative teacher certification programs, and value-added school accountability systems to promote greater innovation and flexibility. Finding the right balance between centralization and decentralization in governance is a key concern for APEC leaders.

        


Australia

  • Overview of Australian Government Indigenous Education Programmes This site provides details on the goals and initiatives set by the Australian Government to improve the quality of education and improve the learning outcomes of Indigenous students, including the National Indigenous English Literacy and Numeracy Strategy (NIELNS) Get More Detail

  • Achieving an Optimal Balance of Centralization and Decentralization In Education This draft paper was prepared by an Australian researcher, Dr. Brian Caldwell, for the APEC Summit on Education Reform. The paper draws mainly from experience in the West where there have been changes in the balance of centralization and decentralization in efforts to enhance the quality of education. Particular attention is given to school autonomy (school-based management), school choice and a private role in the management of public education. Get More Detail

  • Australian Government Department of Education, Science & Training This links to the official site of the Australian Governmentís Department of Education, Science and Training where you will find useful links to information on policies and programmes that promote the development of education and science in schools, higher education, vocational education and training and international education. Get More Detail

  • Enhancement Of Quality Assurance Systems In Higher Education In Apec Member Economies A report on quality assurance systems in APEC economies based on a survey of these economies conducted by the Australian Universities Quality Agency, with the support of the Asia-Pacific Quality Network, on behalf of the Australian Department of Education, Science and Training. Get More Detail

  • International Centres for Excellence This site provides information on the key initiative of the Australian Government to establish International Centres of Excellence in Asia Pacific Studies and Diplomacy, Mathematics Education, Sports Science and Administration and Water Resources Management. Get More Detail

  • Enhancement Of Quality Assurance Systems In Higher Education In Apec Member Economies A report on quality assurance systems in APEC economies based on a survey of these economies conducted by the Australian Universities Quality Agency, with the support of the Asia-Pacific Quality Network, on behalf of the Australian Department of Education, Science and Training. Get More Detail

  • Governance Sub-Theme Strategic Plan Submitted for the 3rd APEC Ministerial Meeting, this paper from Australia focused on the issue of school governance centralization and decentralization in the APEC region. The paper's authors review major research and policy trends in the APEC region and provide examples from APEC's members. A series of recommendations to APEC's ministers for cooperation in this area are then provided. Get More Detail

  • Striking Balance: Sharing Effective Practice from East to West This power point presentation on best practice in education governance and systemic reform was prepared for the 3rd APEC Education Ministerial Meeting. The presentation details current research findings and policy trends in governance and decentralization, provides case studies, and outlines recommendations for cooperation in this area, including the area of higher education. Get More Detail


Canada


China


Chinese Taipei


Hong Kong


Indonesia

  • Act of the Republic of Indonesia on National Education System This English-language document provides the text of a new law reforming Indonesia's National Education System resulting from national wide consultation. The Government of Indonesia made political commitments at the World Education Forum (April 2000), along with others, for achieving basic education for all. In this broader context, national level reflections were engaged for developing a new vision of education, as part of the reform in Indonesia, which emphasize the implementation of the principles of democracy, autonomy, decentralization, and public accountability. Get More Detail

  • Workshop on Efforts to Improve Teacherís Status and Professionalism This English-language paper describes a workshop designed to address Indonesian teachers questions regarding national decentralization policies, such as how the decentralization process will affect the incentive structures faced by teachers, the process of assignment, evaluation and promotion, and dismissal of teachers? As well as what kinds of administrative and pedagogical supportIndonesian teachers can expect while on the job. The workshop resulted in the formulation of a strategic plan and recommendations to improve the status and professionalism of teachers. Get More Detail

  • Education in Indonesia: Impact of the Crisis and Response. This is a short background paper from the World Bank about the impact of economic crisis on Indonesia's education system and the response of the Indonesian Government. Get More Detail


Japan

  • Reforms of Education System in Japan These slides, prepared for the 3rd APEC Education Ministerial Meeting, describe Japan's recent school management reform efforts including movements towards decentralization. Get More Detail

  • Japanese Super Science High Schools (SSHs): An Overview This document, written in anticipation of the 3rd APEC Education Ministieral Meeting, provides an overview of the Japan's Super Science High Schools. These high school are designated by The Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) to emphasize science, technology and math education. SSHs undertake research and development of innovative curricula with emphasis on science, technology and mathematics study and effective ways of collaborating with universities and research institutes. Get More Detail


Korea

  • 2002: Adapting Education to the Information Age A White Paper on the challenges of developing human resources in a knowledge-based society. The White Paper summarizes the current and domestic situation in Korea regarding ICT use in education. It includes current statistics and describes the current situation, current tasks, future vision and further steps of ICT use in education; from elementary and secondary education through continuing education. Get More Detail


Mexico


New Zealand

  • New Zealand Numeracy Development Project This paper, written in preparation for the 3rd APEC Education Ministerial Meeting, provides an overview of New Zealand's Numeracy Development project. The project emphasizes the importance of clarifying expectations, improving professional capacity and community involvement in increasing student achievement. Get More Detail

  • New Zealand Best Evidence Synthesis This site contains Best Evidence Synthesis reports. These documents are part of the New Zealand Ministry of Education's ongoing investment to strengthen the evidence base that informs education policy and practice. Get More Detail

  • An Overview of New Zealand's Education System This paper was provided by New Zealand at the 3rd APEC Education Ministerial Meeting in response to the Subtheme exploring Governance Systems and Systemic Reform. The paper provides an overview of New Zealand's current educational governance system and provides examples of recent reforms. Get More Detail

  • How Can a Tertiary Education Strategy Drive Economic Growth? This discussion paper from the 4th APEC Ministers' Meeting on Regional Science and Technology Cooperation proposed a relationship between strengthening terteriary education and promoting economic growth in APEC economies. The paper proposes internal policy strategies for APEC members to pursue as well as means for cooperating. Get More Detail

  • New Zealand Curriculum Stocktake 2002 Since 1991, the New Zealand Ministry of Education has worked on a complete revision, in English and Ma'ori, of the curriculum. This report analyses the reform experience in terms of: the appropriateness of the New Zealand curriculum and te marautanga o Aotearoa in the current educational, social and economic climate; the purposes of these curricula; and the quality of these curricula in contributing to improved student outcomes, meeting the expectations of a range of stakeholders and against comparable international curricula. Get More Detail

  • New Zealand Education System: An Overview, The This link provides access to publications providing a brief overview of the governance and structure of education provision in New Zealand. The reports include information on quality assurance and the international comparability of New Zealand secondary school and tertiary education qualifications. The site provides the overview in English, Simplified and Traditional Chinese, Japanese, Korean and Thai. Get More Detail


Singapore

  • Education Reform in Singapore: Towards Greater Creativity and Innovation? This article poses questions about several ongoing and future challenges and dilemmas facing Singaporeís education system as it moves into the twenty-first century. It focuses on the ways in which schools are being urged to foster creativity and innovation to enhance national economic competitiveness in the global economy. It examines several key policy initiatives such as Thinking Schools, Learning Nation, the Masterplan for Information Technology in Education , and revisions to university admission criteria. We also discuss the move toward the marketization of education, as manifested for instance in the push for intense interschool competition. Get More Detail

  • The Quality Journey of Singapore Schools This paper was provided by Singapore at the 3rd APEC Education Ministerial Meeting in response to the Subtheme exploring Governance Systems and Systemic Reform. The paper provides an overview of Singapore's efforts to realize their vision of "Thinking Schools, Learning Nation" - where every school is a crucible of creative thinking and self-directed learning. The paper focuses on the School Excellence Model implemented in Singapore beginning in 1998. Get More Detail

  • The Quality Journey of Singapore Schools: Power Point Presentation This power point presentation accompanies a policy brief of the same name distributed at the 3rd APEC Education Ministerial Meeting. The slides describe Singapore's School Excellence Model (SEM) as a case study of school governance reform. Get More Detail

  • Ability-driven Education in Singapore: Recent Reform Initiatives This is a PDF of a Powerpoint presentation accompanying a talk but it does a good job tracing the systemic reform efforts in Singapore, from Survival-driven to efficiency-driven to ability-driven. Get More Detail


Thailand

  • Learning for the New Century The speech describes efforts at education reform in Thailand. Current efforts include moving from teacher-centered to a child-centered methods, integrating content and process, improving assessment, and a renewed emphasis on a Buddhist perspective and indigenous knowledge. Future efforts will include the development of R&D learning centers and the infrastructure for lifelong learning. Get More Detail


United States

  • Enhancement Of Quality Assurance Systems In Higher Education In Apec Member Economies A report on quality assurance systems in APEC economies based on a survey of these economies conducted by the Australian Universities Quality Agency, with the support of the Asia-Pacific Quality Network, on behalf of the Australian Department of Education, Science and Training. Get More Detail

  • Education in the United States: A Brief Overview education; the roles of local, state, and federal government in education policy, administration, and financing; and the No Child Left Behind Act. This online document has been slightly revised from the September 2003 printed publication of the same title. Get More Detail

  • Expectations of Excellence: Curriculum Standards for Social Studies The Council published Expectations of Excellence: Curriculum Standards for Social Studies which provides an articulated K-12 social studies program that serves as a framework for the integration of other national standards in social studies, including U.S. and world history, civics and government, geography, global education, and economics. NCSS standards ensure that an integrated social science, behavioral science, and humanities approach for achieving academic and civic competence is available to guide social studies decision makers in K-12 schools. The NCSS framework consists of ten themes incorporating fields of study that correspond with one or more relevant disciplines. Get More Detail

  • Rhode Island Diploma System Local Assessment Toolkits This collaborative project of the Rhode Island Department of Education and The Education Alliance at Brown University was made possible with the generous support of the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. The toolkits contain resources to help schools develop, implement, and sustain graduation portfolios and exhibitions and use common tasks as part of their local diploma system. Get More Detail

  • Enhancement Of Quality Assurance Systems In Higher Education In Apec Member Economies A report on quality assurance systems in APEC economies based on a survey of these economies conducted by the Australian Universities Quality Agency, with the support of the Asia-Pacific Quality Network, on behalf of the Australian Department of Education, Science and Training. Get More Detail

  • Rhode Island Diploma System Local Assessment Toolkits This collaborative project of the Rhode Island Department of Education and The Education Alliance at Brown University was made possible with the generous support of the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. The toolkits contain resources to help schools develop, implement, and sustain graduation portfolios and exhibitions and use common tasks as part of their local diploma system. Get More Detail

  • New Zealand Curriculum Stocktake 2002 Since 1991, the New Zealand Ministry of Education has worked on a complete revision, in English and Ma'ori, of the curriculum. This report analyses the reform experience in terms of: the appropriateness of the New Zealand curriculum and te marautanga o Aotearoa in the current educational, social and economic climate; the purposes of these curricula; and the quality of these curricula in contributing to improved student outcomes, meeting the expectations of a range of stakeholders and against comparable international curricula. Get More Detail

  • NCLB: School Choice for Parents This website about school choice policy in the United States under No Child Left Behind provides information for families so they may take advantage of new choices and supplemental educational services under Get More Detail

  • NCLB and Scientifically Based Research This website provides an overview on how the No Child Left Behing Act of the United States is promoting the use of Scientifically Based Research in education. Get More Detail

  • Fiscal Decentralization in Education This is a hands-on training module that invites readers to learn the economics of fiscal decentralization in education by making calculations on spreadsheets. Its purpose is to provide participants with: (a) an overview of the policy issues of fiscal decentralization; and (b) the techniques to analyze the consequences of alternative transfer mechanisms, including lump sum grants and matching grants, on efficiency and equity in the education sector. Get More Detail

  • Enhancement Of Quality Assurance Systems In Higher Education In Apec Member Economies A report on quality assurance systems in APEC economies based on a survey of these economies conducted by the Australian Universities Quality Agency, with the support of the Asia-Pacific Quality Network, on behalf of the Australian Department of Education, Science and Training. Get More Detail

  • Better High Schools This U.S. site of the National High School Center links research and resources for better high schools. The National High School Center is a central source of information and expertise on high school improvement issues for the Regional Comprehensive Centers. In helping the Comprehensive Centers build capacity of states across the nation to effectively implement the goals of No Child Left Behind relating to high schools. It identifies effective programs and tools, offers friendly products and provides high-quality technical assistance to support the use of research-based approaches within high school learning communities. Get More Detail

  • Center on Educational Governance Compilation of evaluations, reports and research from a U.S. school of education on new tools and strategies for managing schools effectively, including charter schools and school based management. Get More Detail

  • Identifying and Implementing Educational Practices Supported by Rigorous Evidence This English-language guide issued by the U.S. National Center for Education Evaluation offers tools to educational practitioners to help distinguish practices supported by rigorous evidence from those that are not. Get More Detail

  • NCLB: School Choice for Parents This website about school choice policy in the United States under No Child Left Behind provides information for families so they may take advantage of new choices and supplemental educational services under Get More Detail

  • Education in Indonesia: Impact of the Crisis and Response. This is a short background paper from the World Bank about the impact of economic crisis on Indonesia's education system and the response of the Indonesian Government. Get More Detail

  • Center on Educational Governance Compilation of evaluations, reports and research from a U.S. school of education on new tools and strategies for managing schools effectively, including charter schools and school based management. Get More Detail

  • Identifying and Implementing Educational Practices Supported by Rigorous Evidence This English-language guide issued by the U.S. National Center for Education Evaluation offers tools to educational practitioners to help distinguish practices supported by rigorous evidence from those that are not. Get More Detail

  • Using Data to Influence Classroom Decisions This report offers insight on how and why one should use data-driven results to improve teaching and learning in the classroom. Get More Detail

  • What Works Clearinghouse, The The What Works Clearinghouse (WWC) was established in 2002 by the U.S. Department of Education's Institute of Education Sciences to provide educators, policymakers, researchers, and the public with a central and trusted source of scientific evidence of what works in education. Get More Detail

  • Awesome Library - Principal Organizes resources specific to school management issues, including assessment, funding and infrastructure issues Get More Detail


Vietnam

  • National Education for All (EFA) Action Plan (2003-2015) The Ministry of Education and Training, with the technical assistance of UNESCO since late 2001, has completed the preparation of the "National Education for All Action Plan 2003-2015" for Viet Nam. This Plan was approved by the Government on the 2nd of July 2003. The "National Education for All Action Plan 2003-2015" is, on the one hand, a Government tool for adjusting policies at the macro level in the area of Education for All and a framework for provinces and cities to develop their respective provincial Education for All Plans. On the other hand, this Plan is a framework for guiding international organisations, bilateral donors and NGOs' financial and technical support to Viet Nam in order to accelerate and ensure the quality of Education for All activities. Get More Detail

  • Viet Namís Education in the Transitional Period Informational paoer providing an overview of the education system in Vietnam. Get More Detail

  • National Education for All (EFA) Action Plan (2003-2015) The Ministry of Education and Training, with the technical assistance of UNESCO since late 2001, has completed the preparation of the "National Education for All Action Plan 2003-2015" for Viet Nam. This Plan was approved by the Government on the 2nd of July 2003. The "National Education for All Action Plan 2003-2015" is, on the one hand, a Government tool for adjusting policies at the macro level in the area of Education for All and a framework for provinces and cities to develop their respective provincial Education for All Plans. On the other hand, this Plan is a framework for guiding international organisations, bilateral donors and NGOs' financial and technical support to Viet Nam in order to accelerate and ensure the quality of Education for All activities. Get More Detail

  • Viet Namís Education in the Transitional Period Informational paoer providing an overview of the education system in Vietnam. Get More Detail

  • National Education for All (EFA) Action Plan (2003-2015) The Ministry of Education and Training, with the technical assistance of UNESCO since late 2001, has completed the preparation of the "National Education for All Action Plan 2003-2015" for Viet Nam. This Plan was approved by the Government on the 2nd of July 2003. The "National Education for All Action Plan 2003-2015" is, on the one hand, a Government tool for adjusting policies at the macro level in the area of Education for All and a framework for provinces and cities to develop their respective provincial Education for All Plans. On the other hand, this Plan is a framework for guiding international organisations, bilateral donors and NGOs' financial and technical support to Viet Nam in order to accelerate and ensure the quality of Education for All activities. Get More Detail


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